TABLE OF CONTENTS
- What Your Profit Margin Says About Your Business
- The Difference Between a ‘Good’ and ‘Average’ Profit Margin
- How to Calculate Your Profit Margin
- Tips for Improving Your Profit Margin
Profit margins vary widely by industry, with some sectors such as alcohol and food service netting comparatively high margins (with some quarters exceeding even 34%). However, not all business owners should use their local watering hole as the benchmark for their profit margins.
The truth is, coming up with a target profit margin is a highly personalized process that must account for your business’s various characteristics and operating costs. We’ll walk you through the process to help you find out what is a good profit margin or the average profit margin for your industry and location.
What Your Profit Margin Says About Your Business
Here are some of the main variables that can affect a small business’s profit margin:
- Labor costs
- Use of assets
- Equipment maintenance
- Inventory management
- Cost control systems
- Physical location
- Tax and regulatory environment
No two profit margins will ever perfectly resemble each other. The lowest profit margins hover around the 2% range; this is common in the grocery store, automobile dealership, lawn care and beverage manufacturing industries. On the other end of the spectrum are industries such as dental care, car rental services and tax and accounting services, which consistently run net margins more than 20%. Remember, just because another company in your field nets a certain percentage does not imply that your business will generate the same profits under the same conditions.
Variations in the number of employees, skill levels, tax rates and scale all play into the average profit margin that your business will be able to pull in quarter after quarter.
The Difference Between a ‘Good’ and ‘Average’ Profit Margin
What is considered a good profit margin and an average profit margin for a small business depends on your industry, long-term growth goals and the state of the economy overall.
Here are the top 3 variables that influence a company’s profit margin:
Also, overhead costs can make a big difference between a high and average profit-generating business. For example, independent consultants have virtually no overhead costs compared to, say, a restaurant or nightclub owner who has to account for rent, payroll, inventory and many other recurring expenses.
Your expansion goals for your business also need to be accounted for when arriving at a target average profit margin. If you’re satisfied with your business’s revenue as is, then there’s no need to ramp up expenses or reinvest profits. For those who want a larger slice of the pie, aiming above 20% profit margins can make the difference between withstanding downward market fluctuations.
Last, it’s important to account for scale when finding your small business’s target profit margin. Startups with few or no employees have fewer expenses and are, therefore, more likely to generate higher margins. By contrast, mega-corporations with rent, payroll and employee benefits, such as Ford, Target and Wal-Mart, bring in between only 3.9 and 5.2% margins.
Net Margin vs. Gross Margin
A net profit margin is the ratio of net income (i.e., income after expenses, depreciation, etc.) relative to revenues. To arrive at this figure, simply divide your net profits by your revenue. Essentially, net margins determine the share of your sale price that you keep after considering all the sunk costs that go into it.
Net Profit Margin = Net Profit / Gross Revenue
Net margins, also known as net profit ratios, are always lower than gross profit ratios and operating profit ratios. As such, they are the best representation of your company’s financial health and overall efficiency because it considers all the overhead costs that went into the sale for a good or service.
Issues with the Net Profit Ratio
As a short-term measurement, net profit ratios are useful, but they say nothing of your company’s chances of staying profitable over time. Heavy capital investment, research and development expenses and marketing expenses can drive down one’s net profit ratios even though they’re solid indicators of long-term growth.
Worse yet, business owners may buff up their net profit percentage by simply delaying certain discretionary expenses. Therefore, net profit margins are subject to some degree of artificial adjustment. That’s why it’s important to keep in mind that net profit ratios only tell a portion of your company’s financial story.
How to Calculate Your Profit Margin
Similar to calculating your company’s operating cash flow (OCF), calculating profit margins involves a bit of simple division. You need to keep track of every expense, so you have an accurate figure of your sunk costs (right down to maintenance and transaction fees).
Although there are accounting tools available to help you quickly find your margins, you can also quickly calculate it yourself using a pen and paper.
To find your gross profit margin, start by taking the retail price of a product or service and subtract the cost of labor and materials that go into making it. Once you have that figure, divide it by the retail price to find the gross profit margin of that item. For instance, a $50 product that costs $40 to produce has a gross profit margin of 20%.
50 – 40 = $10
10 / 50 = 0.2
To find your net profit margin, which is used to determine the company’s overall profit margin, you need to subtract all expenses from revenues. Then, divide that sum by total revenues to find your net profit margin. In other words, a business with $2 million in sales and $1 million in expenses would have a net margin of 50%.
2,000,000 – 1,000,000 = 1,000,000
1,000,000 / 2,000,000 = 0.5
Signaling to Investors
When investors see that a startup is more concerned with increasing profitability over growth, alarm bells go off in their heads. During the early stages of small business ownership, you shouldn’t be preoccupied with your industry’s average net profit margin.
Instead, it’s better to focus on taking Amazon’s approach to growth by reinvesting profits into the company to spur long-term growth. While a gross profit margin signals to investors that a company can turn revenue into profit, it says nothing about your business’s ability to remain profitable over time or the amortization and depreciation of your assets.
Tips for Improving Your Profit Margin
The question of “what is a good net profit percentage” often shrouds the judgment of small business owners. Instead, a good profit margin can usually be generated by simply reducing overhead expenses wherever possible.
Watch Your Sales
You need to determine what is a good profit margin for a product or service and cut all those that fail to reach this predetermined threshold (i.e., cut your “loser” products). For instance, if you sell coffee at 50% margins but pastries at 5%, your pastry inventory may need to be cut back.
Pad Your Inventory
One of the most effective ways to boost your small business’s profit margin is to wisely plan your inventory. Take the time to research your market so you can meet product demand without overstocking or suffering a shortage. It’s generally a good idea to slightly overestimate the supply of whichever products generate the highest product margin (i.e., your “winner” products).